Hong Kong court provides guidance on award challenges for failure to deal with an essential issue

The Hong Kong Court of First Instance has provided further clarity on when awards can be set aside for failure to deal with an essential issue, dismissing a challenge on the basis that the points in question were not the focus of submissions to the tribunal (X and YCo v ZCo [2024] HKCFI 695).

Simon Chapman KC of Herbert Smith Freehills appeared for the successful award creditor in the case, which emphasises that the onus is on the parties and their lawyers to clearly identify the key issues to be determined by the tribunal, and to include these in any list of issues.

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In Lineclear Motion Pictures Sdn Bhd v Measat Broadcast Network Systems Sdn Bhd (High Court Civil Appeal No.: WA-12ANCC-45-04/2021), the High Court refused to award indemnity costs to a party who successfully obtained a stay of court proceedings under section 10 of the Arbitration Act 2005 (“Act“), on the basis of the conduct of the successful party and the party acting in breach of the arbitration agreement. Following this decision, a party seeking indemnity costs upon successfully obtaining a stay bears the burden to demonstrate unreasonable conduct by the breaching party, and reasonable conduct on its own part, to obtain indemnity costs.


Measat Broadcast Network Systems Sdn Bhd (“Measat“) commenced proceedings against Lineclear Motion Pictures Sdn Bhd (“Lineclear) in the Sessions Court for breach of contract. Prior to the commencement of the proceedings, Measat issued a pre-action letter to Lineclear but was met with no response. As Lineclear did not formally enter its appearance under the rules of the court, nor respond to the claim, Measat obtained a default judgment against Lineclear. Subsequently, Lineclear applied to set aside the default judgment and to stay the proceedings in the Sessions Court pursuant to section 10 of the Act in light of a valid arbitration agreement between the parties. Measat did not object to the application, instead offering to record a consent order to stay the court proceedings pending arbitration. Lineclear rejected this offer and insisted Measat discontinue its claim.  The Sessions Court judge refused to stay the proceedings and refused to grant indemnity costs to Lineclear.

On appeal to the High Court, the key issues were:

  • in the event a stay is allowed, whether Measat is entitled to seek an order to preclude Lineclear from pleading the defence of limitation at arbitration; and
  • whether Measat is liable to pay indemnity costs to Lineclear given that (a) the proceedings were in breach of the arbitration agreement and (b) Measat unreasonably declined Lineclear’s offer to discontinue the claim.

First, the High Court judge granted a stay on the condition that Lineclear be precluded from raising the defence of limitation at arbitration, in accordance with established precedent for imposing similar conditions. The judge reasoned that the stay would be rendered futile without the condition, as Measat’s claim – while within the limitation period when first commenced in the Sessions Court – would be time-barred when referred to arbitration.

Second, the High Court judge refused to award Lineclear’s costs on an indemnity basis. The established test requires “some conduct or some circumstance which takes the case out of the norm“. In particular, a judge is required to review the unreasonableness of unsuccessful party’s conduct during the proceedings, including: (i) whether it was reasonable for the party to raise and pursue particular allegations and the manner in which the party pursued its case and allegations; and (ii) whether a claim was speculative, weak, opportunistic or thin. Examples of such unreasonable conduct are where a case was brought with an ulterior motive or an improper agenda, or where a party had conducted its case in “bad faith, or as a personal vendetta, or in an improper or oppressive manner, or who caused costs to be incurred irrationally or out of all proportion as to what is at stake”. However, these examples are not meant to be exhaustive. In this regard, the High Court found that Lineclear’s conduct throughout the proceedings, including its indifference to the pre-action letter and the proceedings leading to the default judgment, as well as its refusal to accept Measat’s offer to record a consent order, was unreasonable and did not justify an award of indemnity costs. The High Court judge also found it unreasonable for Lineclear to insist that Measat discontinue the proceedings, given that a successful application under section 10 of the Act would only stay – and not discontinue – an action.

Lineclear relied on  the Western Australian Supreme Court’s decision in Pipeline Services WA Pty Ltd v ATCO Gas Australia Pty Ltd [2014] WASC 10 (see our blog post here) and the English court’s decision in A v B and others (No. 2) [2007] EWHC 54 (Comm) for the proposition that as a general rule, costs should be recoverable on an indemnity basis upon a successful application for a stay as a remedy for breach of an arbitration clause. The High Court did not appear to accept this proposition, and distinguished these cases on the basis that Measat had acted reasonably throughout the proceedings, whereas Lineclear’s conduct justified it being deprived of an order for indemnity costs.


In practice, Malaysian courts have on rare occasions awarded costs on an indemnity basis upon a successful application to stay court proceedings in favour of arbitration. However, this is the first known written judgment from the Malaysian courts which addressed the principles of awarding costs on an indemnity basis in the context of a breach of an arbitration agreement.

An award of indemnity costs is attractive to parties seeking to uphold an arbitration agreement which has been breached by its counterparty. The advantages include a presumption of reasonableness on the part of the receiving party, and a shift in burden to the paying party to establish that the costs were not reasonably incurred. This achieves indirect compensation for most – if not all – of the legal costs incurred by the innocent party following a breach of an arbitration agreement.

Jurisdictions such as England, Hong Kong (see our blog post here), Singapore and Western Australia take the position that as a general rule, a party who unsuccessfully challenges an arbitration agreement before the court should expect to pay costs on an indemnity basis, unless there was unreasonable conduct by the successful party or special circumstances. By contrast, the current Malaysian position is that a party seeking indemnity costs upon successfully obtaining a stay bears the burden to demonstrate unreasonable conduct by the breaching party, and reasonable conduct on its own part, to obtain indemnity costs. The fact of a breach of an arbitration agreement alone is not necessarily sufficient to justify indemnity costs. Where indemnity costs are not awarded, parties should consider seeking damages for breach of an arbitration agreement which, though untested in Malaysia, is an accepted cause of action in various common law jurisdictions.

Further, in precluding Lineclear from raising the defence of limitation in the arbitration, the court did not appear to give any consideration as to whether limitation was an issue of admissibility or jurisdiction. The distinction holds practical importance: an issue of admissibility is a matter for the arbitral tribunal to decide, and not a question of jurisdiction to be reviewed by the courts. As described by the English courts, “[i]ssues of jurisdiction go to the existence or otherwise of a tribunal’s power to judge the merits of a dispute; issues of admissibility go to whether the tribunal will exercise that power in relation to the claims submitted to it.” (see our blog posts here and here). It should also be noted that the Singapore Court of Appeal in BBA v BAZ [2020] 2 SLR 453, recognising the distinction between jurisdiction and admissibility, held that whether a claim was time barred was a question of admissibility, not a question of jurisdiction.

Although the Malaysian court did not characterise the limitation defence as an issue of admissibility or jurisdiction, its upholding of the arbitration agreement may imply that limitation is a question of admissibility as it does not affect the Tribunal’s jurisdiction. The net result of the decision provides some measure of welcome certainty that arbitration agreements will be upheld by the Malaysian courts, even where there are questions regarding the limitation period for commencing claims. However, this approach appears to remove a tribunal’s ability to determine issues of admissibility for itself where a Malaysian court is first seised of the matter.

For further information, please contact Peter Godwin, Partner, Daniel Chua, Associate, Michele Yee, Associate or your usual Herbert Smith Freehills contact.

Peter Godwin
Peter Godwin
+60 3-2777 5104
Daniel Chua
Daniel Chua
+60 3-2777 5101
Michele Yee
Michele Yee
+60 3-2777 5159

English High Court orders indemnity costs in discontinued s.68 proceedings to challenge awards

In Koshigi Ltd and another company v Donna Union Foundation and another [2019] EWHC 122 (Comm) the English High Court considered an application for costs arising from discontinued proceedings under s.68 Arbitration Act 1996 to challenge two arbitral awards. The claimant in the underlying arbitration had successfully obtained two awards in its favour from the tribunal, which the respondents then sought to challenge in the English courts through two related sets of proceedings for serious irregularity under s.68, alleging bias on the part of the chairman of the tribunal. The respondents then discontinued the s.68 proceedings before they reached a hearing, asserting that the awards which they were seeking to challenge had become unenforceable.

In considering the claimant’s application for costs in relation to the discontinued proceedings, the Court decided that the liability for the costs rested with the applicants (the respondents in the arbitration) and that the costs should be assessed on an indemnity basis rather than the usual – and typically lower  – standard basis. The Court’s approach, which disincentivizes the pursuit of s.68 applications without a strong substantive basis, is consistent with other attempts by the English courts to block applicants who bring weak s.68 appeals.

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NSW Supreme Court refuses indemnity costs on successful application for referral to arbitration

Justice Hammerschlag of the New South Wales Supreme Court (the Court) has refused to award indemnity costs to parties which successfully obtained a stay of proceedings in favour of arbitration: John Holland Pty Ltd v Kellogg Brown & Root Pty Ltd (No 2) [2015] NSWSC 565. 

The decision was made in the context of a domestic arbitration regulated by the Commercial Arbitration Act 2010 (NSW), although, as his Honour noted in the course of the judgment [t]he International Arbitration Act and the suite of State and Territory Commercial Arbitration Acts enacted since 2010 are generally intended to give effect to the UNCITRAL Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration.  Good policy suggests that absent clear legislative intent to the contrary, construing them so as to result in incongruent outcomes should be avoided. 

In rejecting the application for indemnity costs, the Court declined to follow the approach taken in other regional jurisdictions.

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Commencing court proceedings in breach of an arbitration agreement: The risk of indemnity costs

In the recent decision of Pipelines Services WA Pty Ltd v ATCO Gas Australia Pty Ltd [2014] WASC 10 (S), his Honour Chief Justice Martin of the Supreme Court of Western Australia ordered Pipeline Services WA Pty Ltd (Pipeline) to pay, on an indemnity basis, the costs incurred by ATCO Gas Australia Pty Ltd (ATCO) in applying for a stay of proceedings under section 8 of the Commercial Arbitration Act 2012 (WA) (2012 Act).

In making this order, his Honour confirmed the application in Western Australia of the principle in the English case of A v B [2007] EWHC 54 that indemnity costs will generally be awarded where a party commences legal proceedings in breach of a contractual obligation to refer a dispute to arbitration.

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