Return of the Snooper: Investigatory Powers Act given Royal Assent

The Investigatory Powers Act (the “IPA“) was given Royal Assent on 29 November 2016, despite being described by Edward Snowden as “the most extreme surveillance in the history of western democracy”. At its core, the IPA is a consolidation of existing legislation such as the Data Retention and Investigatory Powers Act (“DRIPA“), the Regulation of Investigatory Powers … Read more

Nuisance directors? Digital Economy Bill to hold directors personally liable for “nuisance call” fines

On 23 October 2016, the Department for Culture Media and Sport (“DCMS“) confirmed plans to introduce personal liability for directors in relation to “nuisance calls”. Under the proposals, directors could each be fined up to £500,000 by the Information Commissioner’s Office (“ICO“) which, when combined with existing company penalties of up to £500,000, would create … Read more