THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION’S EVALUATION AND FITNESS CHECK ROADMAP: AN OPPORTUNITY TO IMPROVE THE EU-CENTRAL AMERICA ASSOCIATION AGREEMENT

On 29 June 2012, the European Union and the six partner countries in Central America – Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama – signed an Association Agreement (the EU-Central America Association Agreement) (the “Association Agreement“).  The purpose of this FTA was to develop trade and investment relations between parties. On 13 May … Read more

Upcoming Fossil Fuels Trial: Juliana v. United States

In August 2015, the United States, then president Barack Obama, and the heads of numerous federal executive agencies were sued in a civil rights action by a group of 21 young people, non-profit organization Earth Guardians, and Dr. James Hansen as guardian for future generations. The action was filed in federal district court in Oregon, … Read more

ICJ determines first ever compensation claim for environmental harm

On 2 February 2018, the International Court of Justice (the “ICJ” or the “Court”) delivered judgment in the case concerning Certain Activities Carried Out by Nicaragua in the Border Area (Costa Rica v Nicaragua), determining the amount of compensation due to Costa Rica for environmental harm caused by Nicaragua’s activities in the northern part of … Read more

Bear Creek Mining Corp. v. Peru: the potential impact on damages of an investor’s contributory action and failure to obtain a social license

In an award dated 30 November 2017 (the “Award“), an ICSID Tribunal ordered Peru to pay around US$30.4million to Canadian company Bear Creek Mining (the “Claimant“) following its finding that a 2011 decree (“Decree 032“) constituted an unlawful indirect expropriation of the Claimant’s right to operate the Santa Ana mine (the “Project“). This post discusses … Read more

A warning shot for investor-state dispute settlement under NAFTA 2.0?

The US Trade Representative (USTR) is reportedly finalizing a proposal to dramatically restructure NAFTA’s investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS) mechanism, transforming it into an “opt-in” regime under which each NAFTA state would elect whether or not to permit investors of other NAFTA parties to bring claims directly against it.[1] The proposal apparently remains under discussion within … Read more

What to watch for as NAFTA (re)negotiators get to work

On August 16, 2017, trade representatives of the United States, Mexico and Canada will convene in Washington, DC for the first of seven scheduled rounds of negotiations in relation to the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The negotiations have been covered extensively in national and international media and, given the scope of the interests … Read more

NAFTA Renegotiation: ISDS reform objectives

The United States will lobby for changes to the investor-state dispute settlement (“ISDS”) provisions of the North American Free Trade Agreement (“NAFTA”) in the upcoming discussions to renegotiate the regional treaty. ISDS reform is one of several “negotiating objectives” announced last month by the Office of the United States Trade Representative (the “USTR”), the federal … Read more

Commission on Limits of Continental Shelf publishes full recommendations over limits of Argentina’s continental shelf

The United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (the CLCS) has now published its full recommendations on the limits of Argentina's continental shelf.  There was considerable press speculation following the issue of a preliminary CLCS press release in March 2016 that its recommendations may have impacted on areas of the continental shelf … Read more