CJEU CONFIRMS THAT CETA DISPUTE RESOLUTION PROVISION IS COMPATIBLE WITH EU LAW

On 30 April 2019, the Court of Justice of the European Union (“CJEU“) confirmed that the mechanism for the settlement of disputes between investors and states set out in the Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement between the EU and Canada (“CETA“) was compatible with EU law. This confirms the Attorney General’s opinion discussed here.

The CJEU’s opinion will lend support to the EU’s effort to develop the tribunals established under trade agreements like CETA into a permanent and multilateral Investment Court System (“ICS“) in future.

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FINAL DUTCH MODEL BIT PUBLISHED: POTENTIAL FOR CLAIMS AGAINST INVESTORS AND LINK BETWEEN GENDER EQUALITY AND INVESTMENT

The Dutch Government has recently published the final version of its model Bilateral Investment Treaty (the Model BIT). The key changes since the May 2018 Draft Model BIT (discussed in our blog post here) are addressed below.

The Model BIT includes some practical guidance for investors as to how the requirement of “substantive business interests” in a Contracting Party may be fulfilled. Among the innovative provisions, it includes a potential liability on investors in their home State for significant damage, personal injury or loss of life caused in the host State and a commitment to promote equal opportunities and participation for women and men in the economy.

The Model BIT reflects a change in emphasis in modern international investment agreements. The investor protections remain but there is an undoubted rebalancing of the operation of those provisions in the context of the treaty as a whole to address what is perceived by many to be a historic investor-bias in treaty drafting. Further, the Model BIT seeks to implement policy aims through a number of provisions which require recognition of, or aspirational behaviour towards, the achievement of certain development goals by the Contracting Parties.

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Advocate General finds that CETA’s “Investment Court System” is compatible with EU law

One of the Advocates General to the Court of Justice of the European Union (“CJEU“), Advocate General Bot, has issued an opinion confirming that the mechanism for the settlement of disputes between investors and states provided for in the Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement  between the EU and Canada (the “CETA“) is compatible with European Union (“EU“) law.

If the opinion is adhered to by the CJEU, it confirms the viability of the EU’s mooted Investment Court System (“ICS“) in terms of its co-existence with the EU legal order, and permits the EU to continue to pursue adoption of the ICS on a wider scale across all of the EU’s trade agreements. Continue reading

Herbert Smith Freehills’ Response to EU Consultation: the Future of Investor-State Dispute Settlement

As discussed in our blog post here, on 21 December 2016 the EU Commission launched a public consultation on the multilateral reform of the investment dispute settlement system. The consultation closed on 15 March 2017 with a full report of the responses anticipated later this year. Herbert Smith Freehills has submitted a position paper to the Commission in response to the consultation.

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The future of ISDS in the EU: leaked non-paper reveals proposal for EU-wide investment agreement

In a recently leaked non-paper presented to the EU Council's Trade Policy Committee (available here), Austria, Finland, France, Germany and the Netherlands (the "Delegations") have proposed the introduction of an EU-wide investor-state dispute settlement ("ISDS") mechanism.  The proposal is an interesting development in the continuing debate surrounding the future of ISDS in the EU and the wider disputes over the relative merits of investor protection, most prominently in the context of negotiation of the EU-Canada Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement ("CETA") and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership ("TTIP").  Although the proposal has no legal effect and will not impact any current arbitral proceedings under intra-EU bilateral investment treaties ("BITs"), the non-paper nonetheless offers a valuable insight into the views of the Delegations on ISDS and adds another voice to the debate on the future of investor protection in the EU.

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The future of ISDS in the TTIP: European Parliament recommends a “new system” of judicial decision-making

As reported in our previous blog posts (please click here and here), the proposed inclusion of investor-state-dispute settlement (ISDS) provisions in the Transatlantic Trade & Investment Partnership (the TTIP), has caused considerable debate amongst many stakeholders. Against this backdrop of heated public discussion, the European Parliament (the EP) has drawn up recommendations on the TTIP, including on ISDS. Whilst it is the European Commission (the Commission) which is negotiating the TTIP with the US on behalf of the EU, there can be no final agreement without the EP’s approval. The EP’s recommendations are a crucial indication of what it would want to see in the final agreement and will undoubtedly shape the Commission’s negotiating position.  Continue reading

EU Commission issues “Concept Paper” on ISDS in the TTIP and beyond: proposals for “profound reform”

Further to its report on the outcome of the consultation on investment protection and investor-state dispute settlement in the TTIP, the EU Commission has issued a “Concept Paper” which envisages a very different future for resolution of investor-state disputes.

The Concept Paper builds on the four key areas which the Commission previously identified as requiring further consideration, explaining that there is opportunity for “profound reform” of the investment protection and ISDS systems. It also elaborates on the steps it has already taken in the EU-Canada FTA (the CETA) and the EU-Singapore FTA to improve the systems, and makes proposals which it considers will offer further progress towards its goal of protecting and encouraging investment without affecting the ability of the EU and its Member States to pursue policy objectives.

The Commission has proposed what it terms “concrete ideas” and a “concrete solution” (as summarised below). The Concept Paper is not binding and the Commission states that the content is without prejudice to its final position. However, the Concept Paper is a clear indication of the evolving thinking of the Commission in these areas. In particular, the Concept Paper contains two clear messages:

  • Despite the outcome of last year’s consultation and the apparent weight of opinion in the European Parliament, the Commission is not minded to remove substantive investment protections or investor-state arbitration from the TTIP.
  • The Commission envisages major changes in the future for ISDS which, if adopted in the TTIP and accepted more broadly in other free trade and investment agreements, would have significant implications for the way in which investors are able to protect their investments and resolve disputes with host states.

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Forthcoming Chatham House and Herbert Smith Freehills Symposium: “TTIP: shaping the future for investor-state dispute settlement” – 4 March 2015

The proposed Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) between the EU and the US, two of the world’s largest economies, is intended to remove trade barriers, create wealth and promote investment.  On 13 January, the European Commission published the results of its public consultation on investment protection and investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS) in  TTIP.  Of the 150,000 responses, 97 per cent were negative.  Critics have stated that the ISDS proposals would allow corporates to undermine regulation by governments in fields such as environmental protection.  A further consultation is promised.

But why has ISDS in TTIP aroused such opposition?  Can it be improved to strike a balance between investment protection and the right of governments to regulate?  And, if TTIP is a blueprint for future free trade agreements (FTAs), what lies in store for this form of dispute resolution?

Chatham House in partnership with Herbert Smith Freehills are holding a symposium to bring together voices from across a broad range of stakeholders.                                    

Participants:

Sapfo Constantatos, Senior Group Legal Counsel, Dispute Resolution in the General Counsel’s Office, Standard Chartered Bank
Andrew Coop, Senior Legal Adviser, EU and International Trade, Department for Business, Innovation and Skills
Lorenzo Cotula, Principal Researcher, Law and Sustainable Development, International Institute for Environment and Development
Andrea Shemberg, Lead, Investment and Human Rights Project, London School of Economics; Legal Adviser to UN Secretary-General’s Special Representative for Business and Human Rights (2007-11)
Christian Leathley, Partner, International Arbitration and Public International Law, Herbert Smith Freehills LLP, London

Chair:
Andrew Cannon, Partner, International Arbitration and Public International Law, Herbert Smith Freehills LLP, London

For further information, please click here.

Christian Leathley
Christian Leathley
Partner
+44 20 7466 2532
Andrew Cannon
Andrew Cannon
Partner
+33 1 53 57 65 52